In 2016, American marine aquaculture production was valued at more than $400 million.36 While this is small compared with other types of livestock farming (for example, the U.S. poultry industry is valued at $48.3 billion37), coastal communities have realized significant social and economic benefits. Hall and others, “Blue Frontiers: Managing the Environmental Costs of Aquaculture” (Penang, Malaysia: The WorldFish Center, 2011), available at, The National Aquaculture Association, “Why Choose U.S. Farm Raised Products?”, available at, California Environmental Associates, “Offshore Finfish Aquaculture: Global Review and U.S. Prospects” (Lost Altos, CA: David and Lucile Packard Foundation, 2019), available at, Marcel Martinez-Porchas and Luis Rafael Martinez-Cordova, “World Aquaculture: Environmental Impacts and Troubleshooting Alternatives,”, National Aquaculture Act of 1980, Public Law 362, 96th Cong., 2nd sess. 2467, 116th Cong., 1st sess. As the United States considers whether or not to expand offshore aquaculture, policymakers should balance economic opportunity with environmental protection. During this same time, under the same regulation, Norwegian cod escapements did not decrease significantly. reported released. Unfed aquaculture—shellfish and seaweed—have benefitted communities from Washington to California to Maine and are proven to be compatible with commercial fisheries. It would have created a NMFS-run regulatory program for managing aquaculture in the federal waters of the Gulf of Mexico. (December 16, 2009), available at, SeafoodSource, “Open-ocean aquaculture bill introduced,” December 17, 2009, available at, SeafoodSource, “OSI supports offshore aquaculture bill,” January 5, 2010, available at, Research in Aquaculture Opportunity and Responsibility Act of 2010, S. 3417, 111th Cong., 2nd sess. The number of pounds of seafood that U.S. commercial fishermen landed in 2015 valued at $5.2 billion. (June 26, 2018), available at, Advancing the Quality and Understanding of American Aquaculture Act of 2018, H.R. (June 7, 2018), available at, Tom Seaman, “Cooke strikes again, buys California distributor,” Undercurrent News, Martin Krkosek, “Host density thresholds and disease control for fisheries and aquaculture,”, Eva B. Thorstad and others, “Effects of salmon lice, Kevin D. Lafferty and others, “Infectious Diseases Affect Marine Fisheries and Aquaculture Economics,”, Krkosek, “Host density thresholds and disease control for fisheries and aquaculture.”, Tom Defoirdt, Patrick Sorgeloos, and Peter Bossier, “Alternatives to antibiotics for the control of bacterial disease in aquaculture,”, Eleni Mente and others, “Effect of Feed and Feeding in the Culture of Salmonids on the Marine Aquatic Environment: A Synthesis for European Aquaculture,”, T.R. The number of anglers who took 61 million recreational fishing trips in 2015, which resulted in a catch of more than 350 million fish with 57 percent This area is the largest Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) in the world. seafood each week. We have five regional offices, six science centers, and more than 20 laboratories around the United States and U.S. territories. Antimicrobial resistance within humans can cause prolonged illness, increased hospitalization rates, and higher mortality rates. However, the lessons of fed aquaculture—namely, salmon farming in the Pacific Northwest—have been very different. The Country Brief and the FAO Fisheries Statistics provided in Part I may, however, have been prepared at different times, which would explain any inconsistencies. Ocean aquaculture can be divided into two major sectors: fed and unfed. To the authors’ knowledge, the current state of aquaculture in federal waters is one business that completed two short-term offshore finfish tests in Hawaii,14 one pilot mussel farm project in Massachusetts,15 and one mussel farm in California.16, NOAA’s National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) attempted to clarify this regulatory thicket in 2016. Grab a plate: October is National Seafood Month, Videos: Why seafood matters to your region, Number of stocks on the overfishing list dropped to an all-time low in 2019, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. The President of the United States issues other types of documents, including but not limited to; memoranda, notices, determinations, letters, messages, and orders. (see sidebar) Norway’s implementation of the Norwegian technical standard,58 which details specific regulations governing fish enclosures, reduced total escapements by more than 66 percent despite a 44 percent growth in the total number of fish over eight years.59 However, this success story also illustrates the need for species-specific regulation and research. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, “Fisheries Economics of the United States 2015: Economics and Sociocultural Status and Trends Series” (Washington: U.S. … The most infamous case occurred in Washington state in 2017, when more than a quarter million Atlantic salmon escaped, or “spilled,” into the Pacific ocean. Kirkwood, eds., Østen Jensen and others, “Escapes of fishes from Norwegian sea-cage aquaculture: causes, consequences and prevention,”, P. Arechavala-Lopez and others, “Reared fish, farmed escapees and wild fish stocks—a triangle of pathogen transmission of concern to Mediterranean aquaculture management,”, Kemper and others, “Aquaculture and Marine Mammals.”, International Whaling Convention, “Whale Entanglement—Building a Global Response,” available at, Fisheries and Oceans Canada, “Marine mammal fatalities at marine finfish aquaculture facilities in BC, 1990-2017,” available at, Jensen and others, “Escapes of fishes from Norwegian sea-cage aquaculture”; Grosholz and others, “Aquaculture as a vector for marine invasions in California.”, Norwegian Ministry of Fisheries and Coastal Affairs, “Technical requirements for fish farming installations,” (Olso: 2003), available at, Jensen and others, “Escapes of fishes from Norwegian sea-cage aquaculture.”, U.S. News and World Report, “Cooke Aquaculture Pays $332,000 Over Escaped Atlantic Salmon,” April 30, 2019, available at, Engrossed House Bill 2957 of 2018, Washington State Law, 65th sess. The ocean is the final frontier of food. The authors would also like to thank the following colleagues for their advice and input: Jocelyn Garovoy Herbert, program officer and attorney, Resources Legacy Fund; Letise LaFeir, Ph.D., program officer, Resources Legacy Fund; Josh Madeira, senior policy manager, Monterey Bay Aquarium; Ariana Spawn, ocean advocate, Oceana; Jerry R. Schubel, president and CEO, Aquarium of the Pacific; Hallie Templeton, senior oceans campaigner, Friends of the Earth; and Kimberly Thompson, director of Seafood for the Future, Aquarium of the Pacific. Harrison, and R. Waters, “An Experimental Simulation of Changes in Diatom and Flagellate Blooms,”, California Environmental Associates, “Offshore Finfish Aquaculture.”, Seafood Watch, “Standard for Aquaculture” (Monterey, CA: Monterey Bay Aquarium, 2015), available at, Best Aquaculture Practices, “BAP Certification,” available at, Christy Goldfuss, “5 Recommendations to Speed Infrastructure Permitting Without Gutting Environmental Review,” Center for American Progress, September 6, 2018, available at, Rebecca R. Gentry, “Offshore aquaculture: Spatial planning principles for sustainable development,”, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Fisheries, “Seafood Traceability Program,” available at, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, “EPA Regulations Affecting Aquaculture Operations” (Washington: 2018), available at, Andrew Watterson, “Aquaculture/Occupational Safey: Towards Healthy Work,”, Trevor Sutton and Avery Siciliano, “Seafood Slavery: Human Trafficking in the International Fishing Industry” (Washington: Center for American Progress, 2016), available at, World Health Organization, “Antimicrobial Use in Aquaculture and Antimicrobial Resistance” (Geneva: 2006), available at. If so, what types? In April of 2019, Cooke dropped its appeal and agreed to pay Washington $332,000 in fines.60 This incident has inspired caution on the state’s part; in 2018, Washington Gov. Finally, the report outlines some of the legislative options available if the United States wants to implement sustainable, progressive aquaculture practices. As climate change and coastal population growth put pressure on traditional commercial fisheries, aquaculture has offered working waterfronts another avenue of economic opportunity.